Thursday, October 22, 2009

Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3, also known as niacin, naicinamide, nicotinic acid, is, like all B vitamins is water soluble so it needs regular renewal. It can be manufactured by the body from tryptophane. Tryptophane is the chemical in diary products that make you feel sleepy. It is used cell respiration, carbohydrates, lipid (fats), protein and glucose breakdown (like all B vitamins), blood circulation, healthy skin, nervous system function, healthy creation of bile and hydrochloric acid (digestive juices). Used also to synthesis cortisone, insulin, and sex hormones. It is used to treat schizophrenia and other mental conditions. It is known as a memory enhancer and is reported to improve mental alertness. Nicotinic acid is used as a drug to treat bad cholesterol levels and to remove organic compound poisons (like insecticides).
Lack causes pellagra (bilateral dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia). Canker sores, depression, diarrhea, fatigue, dizziness, halitosis, headaches, insomnia, extremities (limb) pains, muscular weakness, low appetite, low blood sugar, inflammation, and skin eruptions.
Minimum 15mg for women, and 15-19mg for men.
High doses given (200 mg is very high) may produce hyperuricemia and produce hepatic abnormalities. Nicotinic acid larger 200mg causes flushing by diluting blood vessels, causing drops in blood pressure. Very large doses causes itching, elevated blood glucose, peptic ulcers and liver damage.
Niacin works best with others in the vitamin B complex and vitamin C. Zinc, manganese, and phosphorus help. Consuming alcohol or people on vegetarian/low meat diets, high corn diets, high refined sugar diets, need more niacin. Aspirin, contraceptives, estrogen hormones or sleeping tablets reduce your niacin.
Diabetics, glaucoma, liver disease, peptic ulcers, should BEWARE of niacin supplements.
Cooking foods in water leeches niacin. It is also light sensitive.
It is found in liver, lean meat, poultry, fish, rabbit, nuts, peanuts, yeast, cereals, (sunflower) seeds, legumes, milk, asparagus, green leafy vegetables, coffee, yeasts, wheatgerm and beans.

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment can come from anyone of any sex, age, or background and be directed towards anyone of any sex (opposite or the same), age or background. Although most law claims come from women, it can be men that get harassed (social conditioning to be sexually available or shame may prevent them saying anything).
For sexual harassment to be illegal, the target does not have to be affected or offended (they may be desensitised for instance). A witness who finds it offensive is also in their rights to take action.

Their are several behavioural groups that sexual harassment falls into.
1. Public harasser, who is openly sexist or seductive (the guy in the pub who makes sexual advances in repulsive ways).
2. Private harasser, who carefully cultivate a restrained, respectable image, but transform when alone with the target (the person who is all charm in public, and then is all over the usually younger person in private).
3. Predatory harasser, who gets thrills from humiliating others. They harass to get a reaction, which is sexual extortion. A lack of resistance can escalate into rape, i.e. the baiting.
4. Dominance harasser, gets an ego boost from harassing target(s), i.e. the stand over.
5. Strategic or territorial harasser does it so they remove threats to or gain job privilege or location (in the hope the the other leaves), i.e. jobs for the boys.

Harassment types

Power player uses what is legally termed "qid pro quo" or this for that. They insist on sexual favours exchanged for benefits coming from their position (usually of authority).
Mother/father figure, will create mentor like relationship with their target, masking sexual intention.
One-of-the gang, are men or women who embarrass others with lewd comments, physical evaluations or other unwanted sexual attention. Can be an individual wanting to "belong" or impress, or can be a gang up on the target.
Serial harasser, carefully builds up a reputation as respectable so people are disbelieving that they could harass. Carefully strategies to strike in private so it is their word against the targets.
Groper will use opportunities when they present themselves for their eyes and hands to wander in unwelcome ways.
Opportunist, use physical settings and circumstances to mask premeditated intentional sexual behaviour towards target. May involve changing the environment to reduce inhibitory effects or "accidental" groping.
Bully, sexual harassment is used as a "punishment" for rejection or other "transgression" or to make the target feel inadequate. It's a way to put the target "in their place".
Confidante, shares their story and difficulty to get the target to open up and then make the relationship intimate and often unhealthy.
Situational harasser, when the perpetrator goes through a traumatic or very stressful life event (such as psychological, medical, or marital problems). Usually stops when the pressure decreases or the circumstances change.
Pest classically "won't take 'no' for an answer" type. Hounds for attention and dates after persistent rejection. Misguided but not malicious, usually.
Great Gallant is mostly a verbal harassment using excessive compliments and personal comments that are gender appearance based that are embarrassing or out of place. Often with leering.
Intellectual seducer usually educational authority situations where the perpetrator uses knowledge and access to information on students for sexual purposes. May take exercises to uncomfortable levels of personal exposure.
Incompetents are socially inept who desire the attention of the target, which is not reciprocated. Sense of entitlement, believe the target should be flattered. Rejected they may bully for revenge.
Stalking consists of persistent watching, following, contacting or observing target. The harasser believes it's love, or it is sexual obsession or anger and hostility.
Unintentional acts and comments that were of a sexual nature, and were not intended as harassment can constitute sexual harassment if the other was offended.

Sexualised environments have sexual "joking", obscenities, sexually explicit graffiti, degrading posters, pornography of any source and sexual objects can create an offensive environment.
Rituals and initiations is where sexual harassment is part of an sexually explicit or abusive ceremony or ritual like initiation or "hazing", commonly associated with first year students, members of the armed forces, sporting clubs, bucks nights etc. They are all illegal.

Retaliation for speaking up or taking legal action.

When people complain about harassment there is commonly a backlash against the harassed, compounding the problem. Often labeled "trouble makers" and power trippers, they are often made out to be the problem. The victim becomes the accused. There private life, appearance and character become a target, often when they are not at their former best. This scrutiny often does not happen to the perpetrator. They often get isolation and anger from bosses, teachers, work and classmates, friends and family. They risk relational aggression and even mobbing. Women are often as bad as the men in the condemning of the outspoken target, although this can change as circumstances develop, especially if others have been targeted.
Complainants can have their projects sabotaged, poor grades given, denied work or academic chances, be bullied and harassed until their productivity is greatly reduced, be fired or suspended, and the perpetrator or associate(s) sometimes successfully execute the threat temporarily that they will "never work anywhere again". Vengeance based stalking may occur.
If the target is prepared to open such a can of worms, they speak up with success. If they are not, silence and damage control is the way for the faint hearted.

Mostly harassment is just annoying. However, cases of severe and/or chronic harassment can be deadly. This is some of the things it can lead to:
1. Increased absenteeism
2. Decreased performance
3. Loss of work and income.
4. Leaving education, changing plans.
5. Personal life is attacked (appearance, lifestyle, private life)
6. Humiliation and objectification by public.
7. Publicly sexuality (are they "worth" the attention or risk to career)
8. Defamation.
9. Loss of trust in similar environments
10. Extreme stress in relationships with significant others, peers, work/classmates.
11. Weakening of networks of support, alienation.
12. Relocation to other locations and jobs (if possible)
13. Loss of recommendations and opportunities

Emotional and psychological effects are:
1. Depression
2. Panic attacks
3. Anxiety
4. Sleeplessness
5. Nightmares
6. Shame
7. Guilt
8. Difficulty concentrating
9. Fatigue
10. Loss of motivation
11. Headaches
12. Eating disorders
13. Stomach upsets
14. Alcoholism, excessive smoking, or drug addiction
15. Feeling violated and/or betrayed
16. Anger or violent feeling towards the perpetrator
17. Feeling out of control or powerless
18. Raised blood pressure and other stress related health problems
19. Loss of self esteem
20. Isolation and withdrawal.
21. Severe loss of trust in people
22. Traumatic stress
23. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (P.T.S.D.)
24. Complex P.T.S.D.
25. Suicidal thoughts
26. Attempted or successful suicide.

Perpetrators eventually get busted or reap some other karma, even if they seem to get away with it. The smirking, leering young man of today is the unwanted filthy old man of tomorrow. Just know that if you have experienced harassment, like most of us have, male and female, that you did not "ask" for it, no matter what is said or insinuated. You have a right to you own, healthy sexuality and freedom to be as you are. Often nice "decent" people are targeted for that very reason. Because they find it offensive and blush, or refuse to accept the demands, the indecent love to poke fun at them and bring them down. In fact, the more harassed you have been can be an indication of the strength of your basic innate decency.

Pesticide Problems

After decades of using long lasting, evolving and potent pesticides, farmers in various parts of highly pesticided parts of the world are wondering why their bee populations are being decimated. Connect the dot. Bees are needed to pollinate their crops of grasses, fruits and even vegetables and herbs. Long term use of pesticides is the most likely culprit.
Unfortunately, pesticides built for potency and a long active life are hard to break down and build up in the soil, biomass, water and general ecology. After many repeated uses, the build up devastates ALL insects (and other animals, including the ones that eat insects), including the useful ones. Mycelium, the great recycler of carbon based life, will not go near it in high doses. An extremophilic mycelium might, but farmers and scientist will have to find one. The pesticides do not just evaporate come the next spring. It's still there.
Possible solutions include the extremophilic mycelium previously mentioned. There is also the use of unprocessed natural insect repulsing oils (diluted), such as pine, cedar, citronella or lavender.
Seaweed (diluted in liquid, or washed and added to mulch) is excellent for breaking down complex chemicals. So is fermented soy, as in miso (but the salt is not recommended for soil, obviously), so experimenting with soy or soy bi-products could prove beneficial. Vitamin B3 is also good for removing or breaking down pesticides specifically, so adding it somehow into the ecosystem (through mycelium or maybe feeding it in higher doses [but not too high as it can be damaging] to livestock and then applying the manure and urine to the soil and mycelium).
Spiders eat insects and so do certain types of birds. So do preying mantis. If you introduced spiders and insect eating birds in you crop, that would reduce insect populations quite effectively. The conditions would have to be suitable for their nest and web building, such as trees, wood, and other places for them to reside and hunt.
Another way to deal with the problem, once the current pesticides have been reduced to a workable level, is companion planting. If you plant rosemary, cedars, marigolds etc in a harvestable manner around and within your annual or perennial crops, and use basic rotation for the brief types (usually used already), unwanted insects will be reduced.
A change of attitude, also a good thing in cropping, would help. The need to have 100% perfect crop output is maybe a bit self-defeating. It may be OK to have a few bug infested fruits losing maybe 2% of your crop (for the hens and pigs and wildlife) in the short term as opposed to decimating your future crops by rendering them infertile.
The ancient Israelites used to leave 10% of their crops each year for the poor and the wildlife. There was more then charity as the pious motive. If the poor could eat, they did not have to rob and murder to survive. If the wildlife could eat, they did not have to steal and hunt livestock and people to eat. If the actual earth had enough biomass returning back to the ground, it would be more abundant in the coming year and the long run.
Well, there is a bunch of ideas for possible solutions to a very modern problem. The implementing of the ideas might get some resistance from the chemical companies, however, a smart farmer would be able to see through that. We haven't "always" used chemical cocktails to solve age old farming problems. It probably wasn't even used by your grandparents. Planting insect resistant plants (some are even cash crops in themselves) amongst your insect attracting crops or releasing insect eating birds and insects into the fold is a much cheaper, less dangerous and better (long term) planned way to deal with the problem. And no one will be dying of cancer from working in the factories that make the toxic substances that have been killing your wonderful bees (and probably you and the town downriver).

Fantastic Phytochemicals

In all material mass there are radio-isotopes as a trace elements. These radio-isotopes release electrons in the form of free radicals which , in the body, often causes little damage, but occasionally has a carcinogenic effect. In fact, a free radical is released 6 times every second in an average sized human. In places where there has been uranium misuse this problem is greatly increased. However, there are organic compounds (carbon based) that are the answer to this minor threat. They are found in plants, and they are called phytochemicals.
The plant uses the phytochemicals as part of their immune system, protecting them from fungal and bacterial infections. They also add flavour and colour to the plant. The phytochemicals are non-nutritive, but they can save lives.

Here is a list of foods that one can eat or use that have phytochemical action.
Broccoli, Aloe vera, Cabbage, Ginseng (Western and Korean), Brussel Sprouts, Clary Sage, Tomato (best cooked), Common Mallow, Garlic, Cornsilk, Acai, Dandelion, Almond, Ground Ivy, Bilberry, Hawthorn, Black Raspberry, Hop, Blackberry, Hyssop, Cranberry, Indian Cress, Grape, Lemon balm, Guarana, Lemon Verbena, Hazelnut, Marigold, Mangosteen, Milfoil, Maqui Berry, Milk Thistle, Noni, Red Clover, Olive, Rooibos, Orange, Rosemary, Leeks, Pomegranate, Sage, Red Raspberry, Schizandra, Sea Buckthorn, Stinging Nettle, Wild Strawberry, Sweet Clover, Wolfberry, Tea, Wild Carrot, Wild Pansy, Woodruff, Soy, Cacao, Comfrey, Common Broom, Echinacea, Ginkgo, Goat's Rue, Lesser Celandine, Lungwort, Opium Poppy (not recommended), Passion Fruit, Periwinkle, Red Byrony, Valerian, Wintergreen, Vanillin, Cinnamon, Tumeric.

Although that is a substantial list, there are others of course, some that are yet to be discovered and understood. They all have anti-cancer properties. Here is a few examples of which phytochemicals are in which plans and what their effect is.
Antioxidants (the most fashionable phytochemicals) such as allyl sulfides are found in onion, garlic and leeks). Carotenoids are found in fruits and carrots. Flavonoids are found in fruits and vegetables. Polyphenols are found in tea and grapes.
Isoflavones have a hormonal action and have a estrogen effect helping with menopause symptoms and preventative towards osteoporosis. It is found in soy beans, red clover, licorice and garbanzo.
Indoles stimulate enzymes. Cabbage indoles disaffect estrogen, thereby reducing breast cancer risks.
In soy and beans there are protease inhibitors. Terpenes are found in citrus fruits and cherries.
Some phytochemicals interfere with DNA, thereby reducing cancer multiplication. Saponins found in beans do this.
Allicin in garlic has antibacterial properties.
Proanthocyanidins in cranberries have the physical action of binding to the cell wall, preventing pathogens from doing the same thing. Cranberries have this compound, and is good for reducing urinary tract infections and are good for dental health.

If you want to do further research or play match the chemical to the plant, here is a list of other phytochemicals.
Alkaloids such as caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. Anthocyanins such as cyanioin and malvidin. Carotenoids such as beta-caroene, lutein, and lycopene. Coumestans, and Flavan-3-Ols. Flavonoids such as epicatechin, hesperidin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, myricetin, naringin, proanthocyanidins, quercetin, resveratrol, rutin, and tangeretin. Hydroxycinnamic acids such as chicoric acid, coumarin, ferulic acid, and scopoletin. Isoflavones like daidzein and genistein. Lignans as silymarin. Monophenals as hydroxytyrosol. Monoterpenes such as geranoil and limonene. Organosulfides such as allicin, glutathione, indole-3-carinol, isothiocyanates, and sulforaphane.

The pith (the white stuff) in fruit has a lot of phytochemicals and vitamin C.

If you extend the logic of using phytochemicals to reduce the effects of free radicals upon the body to an external level, as in the enviroment, it could be that living in an area that has a large biomass (has a lot of plants and animals living in it, mostly plants), the environment around the body is absorbing a lot of free radicals and other carconagens (like radiation). This would in turn reduce the amount of work that the bodie's internal workings has to expend in stabilising and removing these damaging particals. Also, areas with little biomass have very little insulation from free radicals as well as a tendency to have a higher degree of free radicals, carconegens, and heavy metals etc. that can stay that way for longer periods with the only changes being a larger extreme in temperatures.

Anyway, I personally think that a lot more research could be done in the area of phytochemicals and the naturally derived carbon based compounds in plants as solutions for all sorts of medical, social, industrial and primary industry problems. There are medicinal plants known and unknown all around the world that have yet to be experimented with and understood for their greatest potential. I'm sure that random exploration of the phytochemicals in our wilderness, with the help of "primitive" forest, and desert, peoples (including other primates) could be most lucrative for both the people, microbiologists and other scientists (like anthropologists), herbalists and general (primary, farmers and secondary, pharmaceutical) industry.

Sunday, October 18, 2009

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 is of the vitamin B complex group. It is called riboflavin and is water soluble, so needs regular replenishing. It derives calories from carbohydrates, amino acids (proteins), and fatty acids. It helps to activate vitamin B6 (pyridoxidine), absorb iron and create vitamin B3 (niacin).
It helps with red blood cell production, antibody formation, cell respiration (use of oxygen), growth and assists the adrenal glands.
It eases watery eye fatigue, may help with prevention of cataracts. Keeps mucus membranes in the digestive tract healthy. It is needed for rapid growth periods (growth spurts) and during high protein diets. Good for healthy skin, eyes and nails.
Shortage is indicated by cracks and sores in the corners of the mouth, inflamed mouth and tongue, skin legions, eye disorders, dermatitis (skin problems), hair loss, dizziness, insomnia, light sensitivity, stunted growth, bad digestion, slow thinking and "burning" feet.
Having too much is harmless and will simply turn your urine yellow (bright yellow with vitamin pills!) as it passes through.
It might be a good idea to have more if you are using alcohol, hormone treatments, or antibiotics. Also if you are doing a lot of heavy exercise, are over-stressed, or on a low calorie diet.
Vitamin C and the rest of the vitamin B complex group are needed to get the best from your vitamin B2. Optimally vitamin B2 and vitamin B6 should be equal in quantity. Vitamin B2 is light sensitive (that is, destroyed by light).
It is found in offal (that is, organ meat, or sweetmeats), nuts, dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt), eggs, meat, green leafy vegetables, fish, legumes and whole grains (most of which is shielded, note, from strong direct light). You can tell if something has B vitamins in it by a slightly bland taste in amongst it's palate.

Solutions for Dags

Sheep are bearers of wool, a great natural asset for humanity throughout history. However, there is an age old problem that goes with that that has distressing results both in effect and current solutions. Around the back end of the sheep, there is often feces stuck to the wool (called dags), which attracts flies which lay their eggs there. These flies hatch as maggots, and the maggots eat the feces, wool, and the flesh of the sheep, a horrifying thing to witness, called fly strike. The current solution is mulesing, a procedure that has animal welfare groups up in arms. It entails clipping the top level of skin, or all of the skin around the back end of the sheep, so that the wool doesn't grow there, stopping the start of fly strike. The sheep is raw and sore for the time it takes to heal, and it is just as horrifying to witness. Here are some other ideas of what can be done.
There are some birds and other animals that eat flies and maggots (and ticks) specifically, like the ones that live on the backs of wild animals (giraffes, wild oxen) in Africa or Asia. If you introduced them to the herd, fly strike would be greatly reduced.
There is also electrolysis, the procedure of electrically burning hairs at the root so that it does not regrow. However, for a thickly wooled sheep, that would take forever.
Then there is genetics. Either by selective breeding, or by genetic engineering, a sheep could be created that does not have hair around it's rump.
A natural chemical could also be sprayed around the rump that flies find repulsive so they don't land there. It would have to be oil based for long lasting effect (in the rain and sun). Maybe eucalyptus oil, or cedar oil, or tea tree or pine or a mixture of these, mixed with lanolin, the natural oil from fleece, logically.
These options I think are better to both mulesing and fly strike, and worth experimenting with. They are all fairly cost effective and time effective, except electrolysis, and with a bit of tinkering could be quite an cash cow for anyone who puts the effort in.

Honesty is a Policy

Honesty is a policy
We all unerringly
And inevitably
Comply to.

It's the best policy
If one is honest
With one's self.


Favourite Superfoods

There are many foods that have very high vitamin and mineral content, antioxidants and good oils and carbohydrates. Here is a list of my favourites.

1. Goji berries (otherwise known as Chinese wolfberries).
2. Seaweed
3. Avocados
4. Pine nuts
5. Cashews
6. Golden berries
7. Miso
8. Blueberries
9. Oily fish (like salmon)
10. Red cabbage
11. Purple onion
12. Garlic
13. Sunflower seeds
14. Raw honey (like honeycomb)
15. Wild rice (when I can afford it!)
16. Rosehip
17. Peppermint
18. Sage
19. Bananas
20. Mangoes
21. Sweet potatoes
22. Green tea
23. Molasses
24. Kale
25. Eggs (especially from larger birds)
26. Wheat germ
27. Olive oil
28. Sesame seeds (and oil)

Besides being delicious, these foods are a wonder in themselves. If you are interested in finding out why I think these foods are so great, research them. There are other things that I like, but they are pretty average on the superfoods level.

Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1, like all B vitamins, is water soluble, and therefore do not get stored in the body. They need to be regularly topped up, and vitamin B1 only lasts about 2 weeks. It is also known as thiamine, thiamin, or sometimes aneurin.

It enhances blood circulation, helps with blood formation and the breakdown of carbohydrates into energy. It is also essential for the nervous system, in the bio synthesis of various constituents of cells, notably acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, so it is good for the brain (antidepressant) in memory and learning. It is also used in forming gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is also used in the production of hydrochloric acid, and so is important in digestion. It is essential for growth in the young. It may be useful for motion sickness.

A lack of vitamin B1 can result in a variety of symptoms, the most obvious being beri beri. A person with beri beri can be lying incapable of moving, and after a shot of vitamin B1 will be moving about fine within hours. Other symptoms can be nervousness, forgetfulness, irritibility, numbness or tingling in extremities, sensitivity and pain, poor co-ordination, weak sore muscles, general weakness, severe weight loss, gastrointestinal problems, heart changes, laboured breathing, loss of appetite, constipation, arthritis, cataracts, edema, enlarged liver and infertility.

Over cooking, acidity, alkaline (adding soda to make vegetables look greener), or over processing destroys vitamin B1, and alcohol, antacids, hormone treatments, infections, tea, coffee and betel nuts all deplete it.

To fully utilise B1, there must be some form of manganese (a mineral) ingested.

Vitamin B1 is found in sunflower seeds, flax seeds, peanuts, wheat bran, any grain germ, liver, yeast, pork, seafood, raw freshwater fish, raw shellfish (like in sushi), egg yolk, beans, brown rice, whole grain rye, oatmeal, asparagus, kale, cauliflower, potatoes (in or just under the skin), oranges, and the edible parts of ferns (the green bits are poisonous).

The Phoenix and the Firefly

When the fog is down
And the night is dark
I haven't got a clue
Where I'm going
But when the sun is high
In a bright blue sky
A warm breath of wind
Makes me raise my wings
Isn't it the same for you?
Or do your eyes shine brighter
When the moon is high
Does the icy breeze
Make you fly?
Either way, I don't mind
If you're a newborn Phoenix
Or a Firefly.


Universal Declaration of Human Rights

After WWII, on the 10 of December, 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was issued by the United Nations as a way to bring a universal idealist standard of existence to all peoples. The best way to keep one's rights, and be vigilant in the protection of all people's rights, is to know what they are (education). Here are the articles word for word of the (yours and mine) human rights. I have left out the preamble, but it can be found at Brace yourself, it may make you laugh, cry or get cynical or angry for all the times it has not manifested through ignorance and blindness, genuine or chosen. It may change your view on many things. Use the emotion it invokes.

Article 1
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this declaration without distinction of ant kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national and social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing, or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7
All are equal before the law and are entitled without distinction to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention, or exile.

Article 10
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Article 11
1. Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
2. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Article 12
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks on his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such such interference or attacks.

Article 13
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State.
2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

Article 14
1. Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
2. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 15
1. Everyone has the right to a nationality.
2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor be denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16
1. Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage, and at it's dissolution.
2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
3. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Article 17
1. Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 18
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom either alone or in community with others and in public and private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practise, worship or observance.

Article 19
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Article 20
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
2. No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article 21
1. Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
2. Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.
3. The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government, this shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Article 22
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realisation, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organisation and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Article 23
1. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
2. Everyone, without discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
3. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
4. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Article 24
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25
1. Everyone has a right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Article 26
1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial and religious groups and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Article 27
1. Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advantage and it's benefits.
2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Article 28
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realised.

Article 29
1. Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
2. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
3. These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principals of the United Nations.

Article 30
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

Interesting, don't you think? Quite idealistic. It is fairly easy to see where in society and individual situations have a fair way to go in the realisation of human rights. You probably can see areas in your own life and around you. Awareness does help substantially. They are best defended in your own life, and, where you can, in the lives of those around you, or that you know of. I can tell you from my own experience that had I known about what human rights were earlier in my life I would have done quite a few things very differently (if I knew how), and would not have put up with a lot of other things. By the way, when they say "he" or "his", they mean women too. Anyway, now all of us here now know what they are. I think children could be taught their human rights every year of their education, so it becomes second nature in their basic thinking. One of the reasons why they made these rules is that people (usually because they have had a hard time of it themselves, and are ignorant of the Universal Human Rights) have a bad habit of slipping into primal behaviours that are survival based, and not that pleasant. Anyway, it is something to think about!